The Buddhist faith has played and continues to play a fundamental role in the cultural, ethical and sociological development of Bhutan and its people. Religion is the essence of Bhutanese life and society. The Drukpa Kagyu order of the Mahayana Buddhism is the state religion of Bhutan. Buddhism is practiced throughout the country. A small fraction of population in the south practice Hinduism by origins of Nepali immigrants. Bhutan is truly a perfect representation of the perfect harmony of the Buddhist way of life.
Bhutan is a land-locked country with mountainous terrain. The Bhutanese are divided into many ethnic groups such as the Ngalops - Western Region, Sharshops - Eastern Region, Brokpas & Layaps - Highlanders, Nepalese Origins - Southern Region each with their distinct language and dress. There are 14 main different different dialects are spoken even today. The Highlanders still live a nomadic life depend on their livestock. According to the latest census recorded in 2012 Bhutan has a population of 700,000. Thmphu is perhaps the smallest capital in the world with an estimated population of 100,000.
Bhutan's society being made up of four broad groups: the Ngalop in the western regiona, the Sharchop in the eastern region and Nepalese origins in the southern region are basically influenced by geographical division. The Ngalop (a term thought to mean the earliest risen or first converted) are people of Tibetan origin who migrated to Bhutan as early as the 9th century.